The birth weight of the foetuses is also affected by warts on babies hands age of the mother.
However, the length of hospital stays for parturients was not significantly different between the warts on babies hands age groups: 6. Discussions Our hospital is a university tertiary unit, the reference centre for the northeastern region of Romania, a region with a low socioeconomic level and with a high overall birth rate, with 48, births between andrepresenting 2.
For this reason, this region may be considered an interesting source of information regarding adolescent obstetrical outcomes that could be generalised at a national level.
We considered teenage pregnancy to be pregnancy that ended before the patient's 20th birthday [ 1 ].
We considered 20—year-old parturients as warts on babies hands control group, which is reported also in these articles: WHO [ 1 ], Nove et al. This choice is justified by the favourable birth outcome for this age group.
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Pregnancy comorbidities, chronic and gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia and eclampsia, occurred similarly across age groups. These results support the findings of Warts on babies hands et al.
The rate of foetal anomalies we found in teenage mothers coincided with that reported by Torvie et al. With regard to prenatal characteristics, teenage mothers in our study were less likely to have pregestational and gestational diabetes, a fact also reported by others [ 7 — 91315 ].
Teenage mothers were also less warts on babies hands to obesity, which supports the findings of Leppälahti et al. Our study, in agreement with studies in the literature [ 8101314 ], showed a significantly higher incidence of anaemia in the teenage group.
Alouini et al. Our data show also that lower urinary tract infections occur more frequently in teenage pregnancies compared with young adult pregnancies. Few studies in the literature have analysed the association between teen pregnancy and genital infections.
Hidalgo et al. In our study, warts on babies hands the exception of genital warts and trichomoniasis, we could not find an association between teen pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis, Candida, or syphilis.
We also found a lower incidence of spontaneous rupture of membranes as reported by Gupta et al. In turn, Shah et al. Infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses were higher in the control group, as reported by Kurth et al.
Our results are in accordance with almost all studies that found higher risks of preterm birth [ 681619 ], low birth weight [ 8151920 warts on babies hands, and foetal growth restriction [ 781519 ].
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Shrim et al. However, in our study, greater prematurity correlated with a lower parturient age. The same consideration is applicable to the birth weight of foetuses. These results regarding caesarean delivery support the results of other published findings [ 7 — 101415172021 ]; meanwhile Gortzak-Uzan et al.
A lower risk for instrumental delivery has been cited by many authors [ 7101315 ], but Sagili et al. Sagili et al.
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We did not find a higher risk in our study for either cervical or perineal lacerations or for perineal rupture of 3rd and 4th degrees, but episiotomies were more common in the teenage group.
Torvie et al. In our database search, we found a significantly lower Apgar score at 1 minute and 5 minutes among teenage mothers, a fact confirmed in other studies also [ 81519 ]. The Novelty of the Study Even if Romania holds second place in WHO statistics regarding teenage pregnancy, this study is the second study published in the English literature about medical aspects related to teenage pregnancy and delivery outcomes in Romania.
It focused particularly on social factors in teenage births. Concerning the pregnancy and delivery outcomes, the results were similar: teenager mothers were more likely than adult mothers to give birth by vaginal delivery, and the rate of operative delivery was lower among this group.
The newborns of teenage mothers were more likely to have low birth weight, and the length of hospital stay was similar to that of adult mothers' newborns. Another strength of the present study is the detailed analysis of the genital infections associated with pregnancy. One of the mechanisms for preterm birth is the high frequency of genital infections enhancing local prostaglandin levels: few studies have examined warts on babies hands infections associated with pregnancy [ 1524 ].
In our hospital, performing a cervical culture is mandatory for all pregnant women at admission, and lochio culture is performed in the first 48 hours after birth.
But because the goal is the prevention of nosocomial infections and not the preterm birth, screening for chlamydia was not carried out. In our study, we could not find a correlation between teenage pregnancy and genital infections, except warts on babies hands anogenital warts and trichomoniasis.
No correlation could be established for syphilis or other vaginal infections with Gardnerella, Candida, E. Premature rupture of membranes occurred more frequently in adults than in teenagers, and, for chorioamnionitis, we could not establish a correlation with patient age.
The other warts on babies hands described by Shrim et al.
Unfortunately, we could not analyse the gynaecologic age of our patients defined as the distance between menarche and first pregnancy. This research has some limitations. Secondly, it is a retrospective study and for this reason we could not evaluate the socioeconomic and psychological data of teenage pregnancies. Another limitation of the study is that testing for genital warts on babies hands by chlamydia, as a potential risk factor of preterm birth, was not performed.
Most of the patients were from rural areas. Some warts on babies hands these variables were difficult to register, due to the ethical guidelines regarding minor paraziti i krv u stolici and informed consent signed by caregivers.
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Conclusions Our study confirms prior findings that infants born by teens are at higher risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, FGR foetal growth restrictionand foetal distress. However, despite the findings of other studies, we found a high incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and of manual or instrumental uterine revision in the warts on babies hands group compared with the young adult group.
This information concerning risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy and delivery should be made available to medical practitioners so that they can advise adolescent pregnant women and their families. Competing Interests The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper. Authors' Contributions All authors contributed equally to this article.
References 1. World Health Organization. Sedgh G.
Adolescent pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates across countries: levels and recent trends. Journal of Adolescent Health. Iorga M. An 8 years analysis of pregnancies and births among teenagers in a University Hospital in North-Eastern Romania.
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Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala. Romanian Ministry of Defense. Natural growth of the Romanian population —, Romanian6 pages, graphic no.
Nove A. Maternal mortality in adolescents compared with women of other ages: evidence from countries. The Lancet Global Health. Gortzak-Uzan L. Teenage pregnancy: risk factors for adverse perinatal outcome. Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Torvie A. Labor and delivery outcomes among young adolescents. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. Traisrisilp K. Pregnancy outcomes among mothers aged 15 years or less. Journal warts on babies hands Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research.
Dedecker F. Obstetrical risk factors of primiparous adolescent pregnancies in Reunion Island. Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction.
Gupta N. Teenage pregnancies: warts on babies hands characteristics and outcome. Eure C.