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Brie 9. Testarea puterii de discrimiare a semanalelor ECG prin proceduri de sonorizare Efectele expunerii materne la Ceftriaxona asupra sarcinii si nasterii Optimizarea protocoalelor de decelularizare completa a corneei ecvine Analiza dimerilor steroidici sintetizati pe baza structurii triterpenelor pentaciclice Nivelurile receptorului solubil al Interleukinei-2 in hepatita cronica C inainte de terapia cu Interferon Eficacitatea si caracterul toxicologic al unor extracte de coriandru si musetel Acidul oleanolic si ursolic in cancerele cutanate umane — studiu comparativ preliminar association of high risk human papillomavirus and breast cancer a uk based study vitro Relatia dintre retinopatia diabetica si boala coronariana in Regiunea de Vest a Romaniei Spectrul patologic al tumorilor amigdaliene maligne in Timisoara — studiu statistic As there are numerous procedures for sonification of biological signals, which can be tested on both normal and pathological signals, this protocol allows a systematic approach, associated with a quantitative estimation of any of the sonic representations: acoustic continuous or quasicontinuous display, as well as real time, magnified or compressed display.
The analysis of the potential use of various types of tempolenses is also discussed. An application of such a protocol will bring important data for further studies on potential use of sonifcation tools in the analysis of various biological signals. Keywords: ECG, sonification, tempolens, discriminant power. Its potential use for cardiac signals representation was revealed by the pioneering work of Ballora 2. However, sonification of biological signals is still in its infancy, studied by just a few research teams.
This is due not only to the absence of appropriate equipment, but also to the lack of a proper semiology, to allow the potential user to retrieve, recognize and classify a signal - the essential association of high risk human papillomavirus and breast cancer a uk based study to bring this method within the arsenal of cardiac investigations. This paper is the first in a set of articles which intend to present a set up of a methodology for a classification of some cardiac signals, sonified by various methods, starting with a short presentation of these sonification methods.
A short presentation of sonification methods, as described by Mihalas et al. There are several ways to transform a parameter of a signal into a parameter of the corresponding sound. One can distinguish three major levels for sonification, briefly presented bellow. This level assumes a direct correspondence between the frequency of the sound and the amplitude of the signal linear of exponential. In fact we can set an arbitrary value for the duration this sound.
Let us mention here that the frequencies produced by the acoustic transform belong to a continuous spectrum. For level S we can add algorithms for obtaining various durations of the sounds. This level will not be analyzed in this paper. Various tools developed for enhancing the performances of a visualization procedure can be transposed also for sonification.
The preliminary results show a good resolution, without inutile prolongation of other segments. For this phase of the study we worked with cardiac signals for humans downloaded from PhysioBank 6from both healthy subjects and from patients presenting sleep apnea, congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Only one ECG lead was used; with sampling rate of Hz.
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When it was originally recorded with a different sampling rate, it is resampled. This standardization will bring a standard processing procedure for all signals.
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Ой, Олвин, не ходи дальше!.
От вытекающих из этой мысли следствий дух захватывало.
Однако сильнее всего его поразила загадочная маленькая впадинка в центре живота Хилвара.
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Стена растворилась, и перед ним оказался Хедрон.
Our previous work 3 showed that using visualization in parallel with sonification raises the quality of understanding. In this paper only the phase about testing of discriminant power will be presented in detail, without describing the learning phase and classification assessment. However, the demo phase will be described, since it precedes the testing phase. The A representation is unique; however, for Q representation one can choose various temporal steps multiplying the sampling period with an integer, q.
The benefits are certain in some cases: life years gained for those with curable disease, avoidance of morbidity, reassurance that the disease is at a very early stage, avoiding expenses of treatment for advanced cancers and extra years of productivity. But screening tests also have disadvantages, so a balanced decision must be made, with the help of clinical randomized trials.
The same signal can be reproduced several times, starting with a very short steps 0. Hence, we have chosen the maximal value from each set of q samples. For S representation, the distinction from level Q with the same temporal step is less perceivable association of high risk human papillomavirus and breast cancer a uk based study quick variations, but might be perceived at slow variations.
We can mention here that the distinction will be clearer when the sonification is performed on more channels simultaneously. Tempolenses with variable magnification As we showed in a previous paper 4 the interest paid to various regions of the sound is different. The tempolens with variable magnification used by us, in both demo and real signals, dilates the signal 2x for the first quarter of the duration, preserves unchanged the next quarter and compresses 2: the rest half. For understanding this lens the original signal will be first displayed at A level without lens and then with lens, followed by Q level, both N and I method.
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For demo signals the S level sounds similar to Q and will not be displayed separately. Of course, these differences might be better or less perceivable depending on the sonification procedure chosen the sonification procedure chosen for representation.
Удобно устроившись перед экраном, Олвин огляделся в поисках своего робота. К его изумлению, тот исчез.
The study will be performed on three groups of persons: a group of cardiologists, a group of medical students and a group of musicians students. Each person will have a User ID, and a file comprising users relevant data will be built age, gender, profession etc Individual setup is prepared for the setups users with two versions of display: head phones or loud speakers. The length of an audio sample will be 10 seconds.
The working protocol comprises more phases: accommodation phase — the user will be presented successively the demo signals for each of the displaying scheme to be used several testing phases, each one dedicated to a pair of two signals. At the beginning, each pair will have a normal signal displayed first; however, it can be changed, when the differential diagnosis comes to be tested. The screen displayed to a user looks like in figures 1 and 2.
In Figure 1 the signals were displayed with normal rate, while in fig. Visual display of two signals at normal rate no tempolens.
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On the vertical axes, the left side comprises the visual display of the signal 1 the normal ECG in the first set of trialswhile the right side displays signal 2. When the program starts, the first quadrant up left is displayed and the corresponding sound is heard standard duration is 10 seconds ; then, after a pause of 0.
The program stops and the user can now estimate the score of his perception. With a click the program starts the display of the third, then the fourth quadrant, corresponding to the Q level; the programs stops again and restarts with a new click. Visual display of the same two signals with tempolens with magnification 4x.
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The sounds can be heard by accessing the library of sounds, at the address: The user can repeat any of the phases. Moreover, when applying a tempolens, he can choose the starting point by specifying the starting time for either reference signal 1, or tested signal hpv and head and neck cancer, or both. This point will be preserved for all magnifications in that tour. A full round for comparing two association of high risk human papillomavirus and breast cancer a uk based study takes minutes, depending on the number of repetitions required by the user.
The users will be asked to rank the quality of perception of the differences between the two signals to be compared. As the signals will be displayed both visual and acoustic, the users will rank also the differences perceived visually. The following scale for ranking the differences is proposed Table I : Table I.